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Posts Tagged ‘Quick Solutions

Using 3σ Control Limits in Software Engineering

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Source: Wikipedia; Control Chart

The  July/August 2010 issue of IEEE Software features an article entitled “Monitoring Software Quality Evolution for Defects” by Hongyu Zhang and Sunghun Kim. The article is of interest to the software developer/tester/manager in quite a few ways. In particular, the authors report on their successful use of 3σ control limits in c-charts used to plot defects in software projects.

To put things in perspective, consider my recent assessment of the results accomplished by Quick Solutions (QSI) in two of their projects:

One to one-and-a-half standard deviation better than the mean might not seem like much to six-sigma black belts. However, in the context of typical results we see in the software industry the QSI results are outstanding.  I have not done the exact math whether those results are superior to 95%, 97% or 98% of software projects in Michael Mah‘s QSMA database as the very exact figure almost does not matter when you achieve this level of excellence.

A complementary perspective is provided by Capers Jones in Estimating Software Costs: Bringing Realism to Estimating:

Another way of looking at six-sigma in a software context would be to achieve a defect-removal efficiency level of about 99.9999 percent. Since the average defect-removal efficiency level in the United States is only about 85 percent, and less than one project in 1000 has ever topped 98 percent,  it can be seen that actual six-sigma results are beyond the current state of the art.

The setting of control limits is, of course, quite a different thing from the actual defect-removal efficiency numbers reported by Jones for the US and the very low number of defects reported by Mah for QSI. Having said that, driving a continuous improvement process through using 3σ control limits is the best recipe toward eventually reaching six-sigma results. For example, one could drive the development process by using Cyclomatic complexity per Java class as the quality characteristic in the figure at the top of this post. In this figure, a Cyclomatic complexity reading higher than 10.860 (the Upper Control Limit) will indicate a need to “stop the line” and attend to reducing complexity before resuming work on functions and features.

Coming on the heels of the impressive results reported by David Joyce on the use of statistical process control (SPC) techniques by the BBC, the article by Zhang and Kim is another encouraging report on the successful application of manufacturing techniques to software (and to knowledge work in general). I am not at liberty to quote from this just published IEEE article, but here is the abstract:

Quality control charts, especially c-charts, can help monitor software quality evolution for defects over time. c-charts of the Eclipse and Gnome systems showed that for systems experiencing active maintenance and updates, quality evolution is complicated and dynamic. The authors identify six quality evolution patterns and describe their implications. Quality assurance teams can use c-charts and patterns to monitor quality evolution and prioritize their efforts.

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Beautiful Quality

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Figure 1: Agile Assessment – Quality (Source: QSMA)

Colleague and friend Michael Mah has kindly shared with me the figure above – quality assessment for a sample of Agile projects in the QSMA metrics database of more than 8000 software projects. The two red squares in this figure represent the recent results Mah measured on two projects carried out by Quick Solutions (QSI) – a Westerville, OH company offering a broad range IT services.

One to one-and-a-half standard deviation better than the mean might not seem like much to six sigma black belts. However, in the context of typical results we see in the software industry the QSI results are outstanding.  I have not done the exact math whether those results are superior to 95%, 97% or 98% of software projects in the QSMA database as the very exact figure almost does not matter when you achieve this level of excellence.

I asked Bart Murphy – QSI’s Vice President of Delivery and Operations – for the ‘secret sauce.’ Here is the QSI recipe:

For the projects referenced in Michael’s evaluation, our primary focus was quality…  Our team was tasked with not only a significant Innovation effort, but we also managed all aspects of supporting and stabilizing the application (production support, triage, infrastructure, database support, etc.).  Our ‘secret sauce’ was assembling a world class team and executing our Agile methodology.  We organized the team efforts to focus on the three major initiatives; Innovation, Stabilization (Technical Debt), and Production Support.  We developed a release plan and coordinated efforts to deploy releases that resolved a significant number of defects, introduced market differentiating features, and addressed massive amount of technical debt.  The team was able to accomplish this without introducing additional defects into the production system.   Our success can be attributed to the commitment from the business to understand our Agile methodology and being highly engaged throughout the project (co-located with the team).  In addition, the focus of quality that is integrated into our process through the use of Test Driven Development, Continuous Integration, Test Automation, Quality Assurance, and Show & Tells.  Lastly, this would not have been possible without the co-location of the entire team given the significant issues and time constraints for delivery.

Bart also provided me with a table  ‘a la Capers Jones’ in which he elaborates on the factors that helped QSI achieve these results and those that stood in the way. I will publish and discuss Bart’s table in a forthcoming post. As part of this post I will also compare the factors identified by Bart with those reported by Capers Jones.

The ‘Secret Sauce’ of The Path to Agility

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Yesterday’s Path to Agility conference in Columbus, OH was characterized by extraordinary energy. To start with, four hundreds participants in a regional conference is quite remarkable. Four hundreds participants with ‘infinite’ amount of energy all day long is quite extraordinary.

What is the ‘secret sauce’? According to Bart Murphy, Vice President of Solutions Delivery at QuickSolutions, the ‘trick’ is concentration of energy that usually gets spread over three or four days of a conference into a single day. A large number of interactions in a short time span create intensity and passion that are contagious. The energy flows from one person to another, from one group of people to another, creating an amplification effect that engulfs all participants.

You really had to be there to fully appreciate how powerful the experience was. You might not live close to Columbus, OH, but you owe to yourself to consider attending The Path to Agility 2011. And, don’t miss it for the world if Bart & Co. decide to apply their secret sauce to an Agile event close to where you live.

Thank you Bart, Jennifer,  Matt and the other organizers and volunteers at COHAA – it has been a unique experience!

Written by israelgat

May 28, 2010 at 8:32 am